Security in the IoT World

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Gartner’s 10 strategic predictions for 2017 and beyond, makes me unwillingly delve into imagining what the future holds.

As John leaves work and heads to the building lobby, his car is already waiting for him. Self-driving cars are almost mainstream. He just indicates to his car, “Drive me home”. After arriving home, which is already cooled/heated to his preference, he picks up the freshly brewed pot of coffee to pour himself a cup. As he walks into the living room, he says “Play HBO” and the TV turns on with HBO channel playing. Deeply engrossed in the movie, John is suddenly reminded by his virtual assistant (AWS Echo) reminding him about a dinner party scheduled for later in the evening. He tells his virtual assistant to buy some flowers and a good bottle of wine. Using virtual reality, he is immediately present in the virtual mall and able to hand pick these items. As he does a virtual checkout, these selected items are being delivered by a drone to his home in another half an hour and John is all set for the party.

In some time technology will make all of this a reality. Some of it is already a reality though. Let us now look at the technology underlying all of this. At the fundamental level we have Internet of Everything. All devices are connected to the grid all the time. This allowed John’s car to estimate and share his arrival time with devices at home. This in turn allowed his air conditioner to set the appropriate temperature level and coffee maker to brew his preferred coffee beforehand. Almost all the interactions are voice based rather than some clicks on a screen. Devices with audio input will be trained to be activated only on specific person’s voice (biometric audio-based authentication is implicit). Even the acting of purchasing something is not happening on the mobile application anymore. Most of the shopping will be using virtual reality channel and the experience will be most gratifying. No more running to the local store for last minute errands. Deliveries happen by drone in the most efficient manner possible.

Virtual stores of the future will have no physical stores nor warehouses, instead they will rely on JIT inventory from the suppliers directly. Goods will be shipped from the supplier directly to the consumers based on orders received by the virtual stores. The virtual store will completely change shopping experience for its consumers using virtual reality. It will allow consumers to touch and feel objects prior to purchasing theses. Credit transactions will happen transparently in the background based on bio-metric approval from the consumer. The virtual reality googles will perform an IRIS scan to authenticate the consumer and digitally sign the transaction and approve it. Block chain will be used by merchants to maintain these financial transactions in an authentic, non-repudiate-able fashion.

All devices in the home will be connected and share analytics metrics with manufacturers. For example – the air-conditioning/heating unit will share detailed metrics on performance of the compressor, power consumption trends, etc. with its manufacturer. This allows the manufacturer to leverage this data to perform analytics to predict outages and faults well in advance. This in turn ensures that the service technician (possibly a robot) does a home visit before the device breaks down. Preventive maintenance will help continuity and prevent outages. Consumers alongside businesses will help benefit tremendously from this.

Overall life style and experience will change dramatically. People will leverage fitness bands/trackers and share data with their healthcare provider as well as Health Insurance Company. This will enable the healthcare provider to proactively track health of an individual (again through analytics) to detect issues before these arise. Also, insurance companies will base the premium based on the healthiness level of an individual alongside life style patterns. The latter will include diet / food habits (from your virtual store grocery shopping), exercise regime (fitness tracker), etc.

With everything integrated – security is the key. With IoT devices, it is imperative that security is baked in at multiple levels.

 

 

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Let us look at these in more detail below:

 

Device security – The device needs to protect itself from attackers and hackers. This includes (but is not limited) to the following: hardening the device at OS level, securing confidential information on the device (data at rest on the device), firewalling the device, etc.

 

Authentication – Each entity (device, cloud service, edge node/gateway, etc.) needs to authenticate itself to the corresponding entity. If there are default username/passwords in the device, then it needs to enforce password reset on initial power-on (along with factory reset option). Ideally the device should not use static password for authentication. In our earlier post on OTP – based device authentication for improved security we have discussed a novel approach which helps address the challenges faced by IOT device manufacturers today.

 

You can read more about OTP – based device authentication for improved security by clicking here.

 

Network communication channel security – Today there are various communication channels at play, for example – devices communicating with their respective cloud service providers, devices communicating with fog/edge computing services/devices, devices interacting with other devices, etc. It is important that each communication channel is secured and there exists trust between the communicating endpoints. The channel can be secured using TLS as appropriate.

 

Cloud service security – The cloud service provides the backbone for services provided. The attack vector surface needs to be minimal and hardened / firewalled for DDoS attacks. Data from the devices is collected at the cloud service end and needs to be secured (data at rest). This data need not be visible to the cloud service provider as well (depending on the nature of the data and service provided). Provider needs to ensure that appropriate backup and disaster recovery plans are in place. Also, the provider needs to present their business continuity plan to its subscribers. Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) provides good guidance to cloud service providers.

 

Privacy – This relates more to data sharing across disparate service providers. With IoT, devices will end-up communicating with devices / services from other providers. How much information can be shared across service providers with user content needs to be carved out explicitly? Service providers will need to incentivize users to allow sharing information with other providers. The user needs to benefit from the sharing eventually to allow it.

 

To summarize security is a key aspect for success of IoT.

 

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